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How small a thing can be

Take a piece of material, cut it into pieces, and cut pieces into smaller pieces. Let's do this. If we continue with this process, at one point we will have to stop at the place called 'atom'. There you can see, the rows of rows from the substance of countless atoms. Not only this object but also the same results of any other object. A small piece of mercury is cut down to the smallest extent that it is called 'Mercury', that is the atom's atom. The meaning of atoms is "indivisible" According to the literal meaning, it can not be divided into any other part.

Although the meaning of atoms is uninterrupted, the interesting fact is that it can be possible to split atoms into smaller parts. But then it will no longer have atoms. For example, the mercury atom of a minimum unit may be divided into smaller parts, but if divided, then it will not be mercury. As soon as sharing it will lose its identity. After that, the calculation of basic particles will come out.

In 1911, Ernest Rutherford, who first tried to scientifically examine the atom, We can not see the atom and can not divide the properties into more than one form. Can not see, do not share, that does not mean that the interior of the atom cannot be 'understood' to see how it is. When scientists can not see or understand anything at all, they provide its possible explanations and predictions by providing 'scientific model'. By using appropriate testing, the model is proved to be true or rejected.


Before Rutherford, physicist J. J. Thomson provided a model for the atomic structure. That was the end of the nineteenth century. There was some error in Thomson's model. Later, Thomson's student Ernest Rutherford provided a somewhat improved and less error-prone model from his model. Rutherford was a professor of Thomson and a professor of physics at Cambridge University and a Nobel Prize in Physics is a proof of his ability. However, there are some limitations/errors in Rutherford's model. Correcting these errors provides better models than its own, Niles Bourse's student.

According to Rutherford or Bore model, the atoms are like solar systems. There is a heavy centre inside the atom and this centre is called nucleus. The nucleus contains protons and neutrons. The electrons are rotating around the nucleus, just like the planets of the solar system. According to Rutherford or Boor nuclear models, most of the space inside the atom is empty. In a row atom, there is a large space between the nucleus and another nucleus.


Rutherford Model


It's good to say, big or small, these things are actually relative. Depending on the need, it can be very big, and the distance or size may seem too big or important in terms of need. For example, hundreds or thousands of kilometres of cosmic planets can be 'small' beyond the calculation of countless planets, and even one percent of one centimetre (nanometer) on the nuclear scale can be 'big' or significant.

As well as the nucleus of the atomic atom is considered to be the size of a common football if the atom's cortex will be the distance from one nucleus to another 15 kilometres! It is calculated in diamond atomic carbon. The distance may be more on heavy atoms, or at large atoms. The electrons rotate around the football nucleus around 15 kilometres of empty space. Compared to football, electrons will be small like sand. Electrons also retain a distance of several kilometres from other electrons.


Each nucleus is made up of two very small particles called protons and neutrons. If someone wants to get the benefit of thinking, then they can take their form as goals, but in reality, they also have no specific shape. Proton and neutrons are almost the same in size. Of course, they are very small, but they still have a thousand times bigger electrons.



On the part of the mass, the electron is so insignificant that when calculating the mass of the atom, the mass of the proton and neutrons is calculated, the electrons do not have to be counted. What does 'mass' mean? Depending on the mass of an object, depending on all the protons and neutrons present in the object. That is, the amount of mass of a packet salt depends on a number of protons and neutrons on all the atoms of the salt packet. All nuclei of the same type of substance contain the same proportion. For example, salt is a structural element in sodium. All the sodium in the salt have all the same protons in the nucleus. Equal particles of protons are rotating inside the atomic nucleus.



The number of protons in an atom is that which is the atomic number of that element. The element can also be detected by the atomic number of an element. For example, atomic number 6 is carbon, atom 82 is lead (lead). For such numerical properties, the atoms are grouped together in a periodic table.




Previously mentioned, when an object is divided into smaller parts, at one point it reached the smallest part called the atom. If the atom is broken then it does not contain the atoms of that particular substance, it becomes any other atom or any other basic particle. For example, a lead atom consists of 82 protons. If it is broken or made smaller than proton should be divided. Whenever protons are divided into two parts or moved from one place to another, then it will not be any longer, the atom of another element will become. If an atom has to be lead, then it must have 82 protons.

What will happen if the electron is removed? If electrons are electrically fired, they do not even distinguish between the atoms of atoms, even if they affect the atom. Because the mass of the electron is just a small amount.

Neutron behaves a bit differently. What is the number of a neutron in the atom, is not so specific as a proton. There may be different neutrons on the same atom in the field. For example, carbon atoms, there are always 6 protons in it. But carbon neutron can be of 3 types - 6, 7 and 8. The atoms containing different numbers of neutrons of the same substance are called 'isotope'. As such, carbon isotopes have 3. Carbon 12, Carbon-13 and Carbon-14 Here the number of masses of carbon is indicated by the number 12, 13 and 14. The sum of protons and neutrons in an element is called the mass number. 6 + 6 = 12, 6 + 7 = 13 and 6 + 8 = 14; These three different numbers of neutron are just about 3 isotopes of carbon.





There are some isotopes that show radioactivity. This means that they are gradually transformed into another atom by completing radioactive radiation. Carbon-14 is a radioactive isotope. By using this radioactivity of the isotope, scientists can determine the age of the fossils. Carbon-14 isotopes are used to determine the fossil age. For example, carbon-14 is used to determine the age and duration of an ancient sinking vessel.

So, does our nuclear quest end up reaching electrons, protons and neutrons? So what is the smallest part of the object? No! Even basic particles of protons and neutrons can be solved. Quark can be found if the neutrons are solved. There are six types of quarks in nature - up quark, down quark, top quark, bottom quark, charm quark and strangle quark. The two up quark (u) and a down quark (d) form a proton together, whereas an up and two down quarks form a neutron.

What is the end of the quark? Physicists think, no. According to a hypothesis, the quarks consist of a small fibre or strings. This concept is known as 'String Theory'. So far, scientists have found that this is the smallest part of the object.



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